Photron - High Speed Video Camera for Slow Motion Analysis

INFORMATION ON HIGH SPEED IMAGING

GLOSSARY

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A/D Acronym for Analog-to-Digital converter which converts an analog signal to a digital signal. A/D converters may be referred to as 8-bit, 10-bit, 12-bit converters. This just means the analog representation when converted into digital will have a tonal range from 0-255 for 8-bit, 0-1023 for 10-bit and 0-4095 for 12-bit converters.
Adapter Adapter may have multiple references when speaking about imaging technology. An adapter could be a lens adapter, a connector that changes the gender, or an interface that talks to a camera.
AGC Automatic gain control is a method to control the amount of brightness seen in the image. Typical method is increasing or decreasing the gain on a camera to a median level set by the user.
AIA Automated Imaging Association. http://www.machinevisiononline.org/
Aliasing An image sampling error in digital systems manifesting itself as spatial frequency components beyond the sampling limit (Nyquist frequency) that are displayed at progressively lower frequencies. Aliasing can produce moiré pattern artifact in an image when the spatial frequency of the signal exceeds the sampling rate of the digitizer.
Analog A common way to describe the difference between analog and digital is to think of a watch. An analog watch is one that has a hand that sweeps continuously around the dial. A digital watch has discrete numbers. Therefore, analog means a signal whose function is continuous.
Aperture Most often is in reference to the numerical aperture of a lens also known as the f-stop.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) An 8-bit code used to designate alphanumeric and other characters and symbols for computers.
Aspect Ratio Often used to reference the ratio of width to height for an image in some standard format. Such as 4:3 used in conventional (native format) or 16:9 used in HDTV format.
Asynchronous When a camera system is taking images not synchronized with the framing of a camera, it is often referred to as being asynchronous. This can also mean literally any function or signal when not in sync or unison with a reference signal can be referred to as asynchronous (not in sync).
Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Automatic gain control is a method to control the amount of brightness seen in the image. Typical method is increasing or decreasing the gain on a camera to a median level set by the user.
Backside-illuminated A type of CCD sensor, full-frame (100% fill factor), that has been uniformly reduced thickness of approximately 10 μm so that an image can be focused on the backside of the sensor. The advantage of backside illumination is the metal layers used to pass signals are on the front of the sensor. Therefore, the obstruction to the pixel is 100 % free.
Bandwidth Bandwidth is often used in the context of data transfer such as a sensor's bandwidth or an interface data bandwidth. Bandwidth is the difference between an upper and lower limit of frequency in cycles per second (hertz).
Baud rate The number of bits per second often referred to in serial communication interfaces.
Beam splitter An optical device used to split a single image path or light beam into two or more separate paths.
Binned Readout A type of sensor architecture where individual pixels are combined in a module (2) format to produce higher sensitivity. Binned readout architecture is easier to implement in a CCD rather than a CMOS structure.
Binning A technique for combining the signal (charge for CCDs) in multiple pixels, adjacent or in some repeatable pattern, so that the combined signal is read out as an image.
Binning factor The number of pixels, adjacent or in some repeatable pattern, combined through binning. A binning factor of 4 x 4s has 16 pixels combined in some pattern such as 4 row and four columns.
Bit A single binary unit of information where the information is either a 1 or a 0 for notation. If you have 8-bits this is also referred to as a byte. If you have 16-bits this is also referred as two bytes or a word. However, some words can be 16, 32 or even 64-bits long.
Bit depth The number of bits that are digitized by the A/D converter or the representation of how many bits can be made from the signal in a pixel.

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